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g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

14 Cars Attack The Skidpad And Track. What Sticks And What Sucks?

James Tate
Jun 15, 2007
Writers: Jay Chen, Andy Hope Photographers: Ben Kruper, SCC Staff
0708_sccp_01_z+g_masters+honda_s2000right_front_view Photo 1/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

Trophy truckers measure greatness by suspension travel. Muscle-car guys live a quarter-mile at a time. Show weenies are into... well, who cares what they're into?

Our car culture takes pride in owning the corners-on the street and track. Whether in a front-wheel-drive four-cylinder or an all-wheel-drive turbo six.

You see it in the data we collect and publish, though it is rarely the focus of the stories we do. Most often, it is a single line at the bottom of the spec box, or the small highlighted portion in some crazy graph we've generated. And it almost always takes a back seat to a lap time or horsepower figure. It's the measure of lateral acceleration, also known as cornering force, and is represented in a unit we have all understood since birth: gravity.

0708_sccp_02_z+g_masters+ Photo 2/41   |   The 1982 Williams FW08C was the real deal. The thing was just a work of art, and one of the world's fastest cars in its day.

Though we have an inherent understanding of gs, how this force acts on a vehicle is more difficult to understand. Knowing that a car can pull 0.95g on a skidpad is like knowing a woman wears a size 34C bra. Each figure reveals one significant and specific characteristic, but doesn't say anything about the overall, uh, handling experience. In the case of the cars, what we found was that, with some heat in the tires and a lot of speed, some cars performed considerably better or worse than their skidpad numbers might suggest.

So when we came up with this idea of measuring the extremes of cornering force, we knew that simply recording skidpad gs was not enough. We'd have to wire up the cars with telemetry and hit the track as well.

At least that was the original plan: invite a few street cars out to Willow Springs for a few laps on the 'pad and track. At first, we biased our selection towards handling rather than outright performance, wanting to include as many combinations of layouts and drivetrains as possible. Front-, mid-, rear-engine? Check. Front-wheel-, rear-wheel-, all-wheel-drive? Check. We looked for popular cars with popular modifications, but threw in some high-performance stock cars for reference.

0708_sccp_09_z+g_masters+line_up Photo 3/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

Our only rules were that street cars showed up on street tires, race and time attack cars showed up on the R-compounds that their respective series mandated, and the rest was a free-for-all. We wanted real-world g numbers, so each car was aligned for the track and not the skidpad. For those that have the luxury of adjustable aerodynamics, we went for full downforce over lap times. As the list grew longer, our aims grew bolder. Why stop at street cars? If we're looking to pull the highest g-force, don't we have to include some serious race cars?

So calls went out to our pals who have friends who know guys with money and fast cars. Industry connections got us the hook-up with the 2006 championship-winning Star Mazda team, World Speed Motorsports of Sonoma, California. The kicker, however, was when tech editor Chen casually dropped: "What if we could get an F1 car?" That explains how Keke Rosberg's 1983 Monaco Grand Prix-winning car ended up on the same track as Philip Phong's 2000 Honda Civic.

It was a surreal scene that morning at the edge of the Mojave Desert. In all, we invited 13 machines, from a go-kart to an F1 car. The paddock had the oddest mix of machinery ever seen. In the middle were your typical track-day guys, Phong's Civic and a couple of Nissans. Behind each car was the standard pit pile, consisting of a spare tire, floor mats, CDs and a duffel bag with a torque wrench on top.

0708_sccp_12_z+g_masters+three_car Photo 4/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

Next to them were the club racer/time attack guys with pick-ups, trailers, and lots of spares. Out on the ends were giant transporters with crew members wrenching on open-wheel race cars. Somewhere in the middle was the kid with the kart. He looked bewildered, like he'd shown up at the wrong track or something. It was really cold with just a slight breeze, but the sun was shining on the track-the kind of weather that sees track records being broken.

The cars were all beautiful, but most were overshadowed by the formula cars. With their bodywork removed, showing off their brilliant engineering, they were like the hotties that show up at the Halloween party wearing just lingerie. The Pro Formula Mazda looked to be the perfect race car. It had all sorts of trickle-down technology from Formula One, but assembled with standardized parts for cost savings. It's like the Spec Miata of open-wheel racing.

The 1982 Williams FW08C was the real deal, though. The coffin was surrounded by polished aluminum. The suspension pick-up points, coolant and exhaust routing, engine mounts, everything was totally exposed. And it all made sense. With such straightforward engineering, the thing was just a work of art, and one of the world's fastest cars in its day. Even better, owner and driver Erich Joiner arrived at the track in his brand-new 997 Porsche turbo, and graciously allowed us to test it alongside the 13 other cars. It's always nice when the rich guy with the supercars turns out to be a cool dude.

0708_sccp_20_z+g_masters+under_hood Photo 5/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

Everything started out about as expected with the street cars all pulling numbers in the mid-0.9g range. Surprisingly, the exotics didn't do much better. In the paddock, the Noble M12 looked every bit an imported supercar. Out on the 'pad however, it acted more like an 80s station wagon. Owner Matt Bell wagged it back and forth from over- to understeer, while dealing with significant body roll. We expected more from the 2300-pound lightweight. The 997 Porsche Turbo seemed to negotiate much better, but its additional 1500 pounds gave it about the same performance as the GT-R, which we should have expected.

Our race car group, with their competition tires, stepped things up to just over 1g. It seemed like the amount of whining from the drivers was directly proportional to the amount of gs they pulled. The carbon fiber-bodied C-West S2000 didn't have a driver, so I drove it, along with the stock RX-8 we brought out for baseline numbers. The S2000 was a real handful. I couldn't get any heat in the tires and the back end would break loose, with the most un-progressive snap oversteer I've felt since testing Calvin Wan's FD drift car. I would have felt much more content at the time if I'd known the thing was pulling 1.15g.

The open-wheel guys had even more to moan about. According to Joiner, the Cosworth V8 in his F1 car comes up on its cams right at the top speed he was going in first gear. With just a 500rpm increase, the horsepower would ramp up from around 200 to 450. You could feel it too, as the rear end would step out while the motor roared up to its sweet spot. It was bad ass. Tom Hughes Jr. in the Mazda also complained he couldn't heat the tires up, but added words like slippery, bumpy, and dusty. Still both guys ripped off numbers like nothing we had seen before on hard compound tires-because that's what they were going to race on the following week.

0708_sccp_42_z+g_masters+group_cars Photo 6/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

Quiet Cory Fancy recorded the highest g reading of the skidpad with his Superkart. The 250cc two-stroke came to life with the fury of a 300-pound carpenter bee. According to Fancy, it may have been jetted a little rich for the cold weather, as the throttle response was like an on/off switch. The 80hp bursts shocking the tiny rear wheels of the suspension-less frame made for some really busy hands. The kart was catching air off the small dips and bumps and never looked like it was going straight. He pulled 1.39g and earned every bit of it.

For track testing, we focused on the lateral g readings in Turn Two of Big Willow. During this test, it became really obvious which cars and drivers had spent a lot of time on a race track and which hadn't. Rather than risk stuffing private vehicles, we left it up to the owners to attempt fast and sticky laps and only drove our RX-8 and the C-West S2000 for the test.

The GT-R, S13, and Civic were all set up for the street. Their suspensions were stiff at the front and aligned with toe-in up front as well. This makes for really good handling during panic stops on the street, but quickly overheats the front tires on the track. The GT-R and Civic ran their fastest segment times on their first lap of the test. Sean Holloway of A'PEXi, in the GT-R, actually pulled off a respectable average g reading, beating not only all the street cars, but every supercar except for the slick tire-shod 2200-pound Exige S. The Noble had a quicker time through the segment, but pulled fewer gs. This suggests the GT-R was already slipping off the faster inside line on its first lap.

0708_sccp_48_z+g_masters+indy_car_trailer Photo 7/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

The Noble was having its own issues, though. In a 2300-pound mid-engined car with almost 400hp, you really need to feel how much grip the front tires have. The power-assisted steering on the Noble gives little feedback at speed. Without being able to feel the front tires dig in, the first indication the thing is going to swap ends is when the back end comes flying around. Driving at the limit of adhesion is a guessing game as to how much traction is left, followed by frantic countersteering in the ensuing moments of terror. I drove a different Noble at the same track a few months earlier and it was anything but confidence-inspiring.

0708_sccp_40_z+g_masters+track Photo 8/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

Overly tail-happy, but in a different way was the S2000, still shod in the original A048 Advan tires from when it was shipped over in '05. Since then, the rubber had competed in Super Street's Time Attack and suffered unknown abuse while traveling the country on the Hot Import Nights tour for a year. The TEIN suspension that probably worked well when the tires were sticky was now overloading the spent tires, causing them to break loose on the bumps. Fortunately, the S2000's communicative steering made catching the slides a piece of cake. Telemetry showed this car to be the least stable of all the closed-wheel cars. But still, the lightweight, downforce-producing body panels allowed the car to rocket through Turn Two the fastest of them as well.

0708_sccp_41_z+g_masters+track Photo 9/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

In contrast, the Works Evo and Hasport Integra sailed butter-smooth through the segment. Their average gs and peak gs were only off by 0.04 and 0.02, respectively. Bernardo Martinez allowed me to take his Integra out for a few laps after testing. Between the suspension and practical sedan aerodynamic tuning, and the power delivery of the K24 swap, the car was an absolute pleasure to drive. It easily set the fastest lap time of the closed-wheel cars and had even more in it, if needed.


0708_sccp_43_z+g_masters+track Photo 10/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

If we had called it a day at this point, we could have claimed that our highly tuned sport compacts were the g masters. But then the formula cars went out and decimated our silly field of 'racers'. Joiner tore through Turn Two, pulling an average of 1.64g in the FW08C. Then Hughes whipped through even faster in the Pro Formula Mazda. Our data acquisition couldn't record the gs from that car, so Chen hacked into their Motec system for an explanation as to how the thing went so fast. That system showed the car running through Turn Two at close to 2g. It also indicated that the car was producing 0.51g of downforce at the end of the front straight.

0708_sccp_44_z+g_masters+track Photo 11/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

Our little Superkart, which managed to hop and skip its way though Turn Two, clocked an unconfirmed 2.87g spike. Why unconfirmed? Because the telemetry's accelerometer was in the midst of getting its brains bashed out, buried somewhere underneath the radiator inside the sidepod. Some of our cars had nice aero, but nothing that's going to pull like that.

In the end, we proved that our typical test cars will out-corner pretty much anything you'll find on the street, but to no surprise, they don't come anywhere near a fully race-prepped formula car. We especially have to thank Erich Joiner for bringing out his beautiful Monaco GP-winning race car, even if he was babying it a bit to protect his investment and our egos. To give you some idea of what those cars could do in their day, future world champion Nigel Mansell set the Willow Springs lap record in 1982 while testing his John Player Special Lotus F1. On our day, Hughes ran a fastest time of 1:17.558, maybe a new Pro Formula Mazda record. Twenty-five years earlier, Mansell clocked 1:06.300. Just before stuffing it into the embankment on the outside of Turn Four.

0708_sccp_06_z+g_masters+mazda_rx8_side_view Photo 12/41   |   On a banked corner, the reaction to the car's weight (blue arrows) is doing part of the work of holding the car in the corner. Add the varying amounts of friction (red arrows) provided from each tire at the limits of traction, and the total lateral forces (green arrow) pushing the car into the turn will increase with the banking angle. In order for the centrifugal force pushing the car out of the turn to now be equal to the forces pushing the car into the turn, you'd have to go around the bank faster (for the nit-picking physics nerds out there, this obviously isn't a proper free body diagram).

G = Gravity
While sheer lateral grip doesn't necessarily equate to a fast car on track, our 200-foot skidpad is still a good measure of most street cars' amount of stick. It's an average of the lateral grip any car generates, calculated from the time it takes to complete a level circle, 200 feet in diameter, in both directions.

We're always striving to break 1g in our street cars. No small feat, considering the tires are supporting the equivalent of the car's weight sideways. Put in perspective, most cars generate just a hair over 1g at peak straight-line braking deceleration, and few can exceed the magic number in acceleration.

Even in all-wheel-drive cars, with all four wheels generating friction to launch, it's harder to accelerate the vehicle in a straight line than it is to hold the car from going sideways. Part of it has to do with the fact that a tire's traction circle is slightly elliptical, since the tire contact patch is wider than it is tall. More critical, however, is weight transfer. Friction is as much a function of the tire itself as the weight that it's supporting. With less weight on the front tire in a launch, less overall friction or grip is available. In the sideways scenario, while there's still weight transfer, a well-sorted suspension will keep weight on all four tires much more than in straight-line acceleration. The forces trying to overpower tire grip and push a car out of a turn are also more powerful than the force an engine can supply to push a car forward.

But the skidpad isn't the ultimate judge of lateral grip. Real race cars suffer mid-throttle asphyxiation and a miserable understeering death on such a small loop where there is no aero grip. A fast constant-radius turn separates the sticky cars from the quick ones. That's exactly what we found in Turn Two at Willow Springs International Raceway in Rosamond, California. The track is considered the fastest in the West, where street cars can see speeds of up to 110mph down the front and back straights. Turn Two's slightly banked profile and large radius gives plenty of room and speed to see just how much difference downforce makes in increasing lateral grip.

For reference, we brought out a bone stock Mazda RX-8, which for our intents and purposes, has negligible aero grip or lift. It averaged 85mph and 1.03g through the turn, compared to the 0.92g it pulled on the skidpad. That extra 0.09g comes just from the higher speed and road camber.

Turn Two averages a couple degrees of banking, which adds to the equation. Normally, on a flat turn, the centrifugal acceleration, (or lateral g) acting on the car is equal to the total lateral friction force of all the tires trying to keep the car from sliding out of the turn. On an angled banking corner, Newton's equal and opposite reaction force to the car's weight, which normally has no effect laterally, now contributes to pushing the car back into the turn, along with friction forces. So at the maximum threshold of tire grip, there's more force available to push the car back into the turn than on level ground. To bring everything back into balance, a car would have to travel faster through the banked turn and generate more centrifugal force. This is why you can round a banked onramp a lot faster than a flat one. -Jay Chen

0708_sccp_13_z+g_masters+toyota_yaris_front_view Photo 13/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

From Zero to Hero: The 1g Challenge
Getting a car with any semblance of sportiness to pull a g is old news. So we went the opposite way in search of the elusive 1g: find the biggest turd we could get our hands on and see if we can get it to support its own weight sideways. Ironically, finding a reasonable candidate wasn't so easy in a sea of modern high-performance cars. It had to be horrid enough to make the challenge worthwhile, but at the same time new and popular enough that manufacturers are willing to actually make parts for it. Our managing editor's Datsun F10 and our editor's minivan came to mind as potential sacrifices to the skidpad, but we couldn't find anyone sufficiently odd making parts that lend any handling advantage.

We settled on a not-so-sporty, but certainly compact 2007 Toyota Yaris S sedan. It's the ideal econobox platform, with probably the least guts of any car we can think of. Just the kind of thing the Japanese would consider cool enough to be turned into a spec race car-the Vitz-precisely where we'll find our suspension bits. So the plan was to baseline the Yaris sedan, bring out the parts we'd need, and make changes on the spot to have the Yaris break the magical 1g barrier.

TEIN's crew came out to the track with a set of their unfortunately named Super Street coilovers developed from their Yaris hatch race car. The simple bolt-on suspension and minor changes to the factory alignment brought the Yaris from a pathetic 0.76g to an impressive 0.85g on the 200-foot skidpad. All with just springs, dampers and no anti-roll bars, in typical Japanese fashion.

Obviously, no amount of suspension would make the Yaris' stock grocery-run mommy tires break a g. So we called up the wheel and tire experts at Tire Rack to find the right pair of shoes. We weren't surprised that no one had any idea about what fits a Yaris, but that's what's so cool about Tire Rack. If they don't know, they'll find out. Even after fitting a set of 15x7 Enkei RPF1 with 225/50R15 Hoosier A6 compound tires in a computer simulation, Tire Rack went to the extreme of bringing in a stock Yaris sedan into their headquarters in South Bend, Indiana, to make sure the set-up worked with no interference issues regarding the stock suspension and chassis for the entire range of suspension travel. They even made sure there was enough clearance for the TEIN coilover suspension we were planning to stuff in. Special treatment, we thought, but it's a service they perform for any of their customers.

With the Hoosier autocross A6 compound and cheater slick tread design, our little Yaris went out and pulled off 1.05g. Something few of our projects cars can claim and enough to beat even the phenomenal new 997 Porsche 911 Turbo. So what did we prove? Two things: a little tire goes a long way and, while you may not be able to make a turd go fast, it's pretty easy to make one stick. -JC

0708_sccp_21_z+g_masters+indy_car_left_front_view Photo 17/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing

Williams Type FW08C
Not to be confused with the six-wheeled FW-08B that never saw a racetrack, the car you see here competed in Formula One in 1982 and 1983, helping the original 'Flying Finn' Keke Rosberg secure the 1982 drivers championship, despite just one win at Dijon over the course of the season.

The 1982 French Grand Prix was a hard-earned victory for Rosberg. The Cosworth engine was said to be more than 120hp down on the turbocharged competition Renault and Ferrari campaigned. Because the 3.0-liter V8 lacked the oomph to overpower heavy downforce, it had to be dialed out. As a result, the Goodyear rubber tended to spin into narrower doughnuts at high speed. According to the Finn, the car's deficiencies simply meant he'd have to take "massive risks" on faster tracks. The cars strong suit, predictably enough, was on tighter tracks where a lot of downforce could be used while not sacrificing top speed. Rosberg proved this in 1983 with a win at Monaco, albeit mostly due to a lucky tire choice.

Uniquely, the car is equipped with a Hewland six-speed transmission, installed to help deal with the turbocharged competition. As Frank Williams puts it: "The idea was that the driver could latch onto a turbo car in a corner in fifth gear and peak out of the corner with another gear still in hand to hold the turbo car until the end of the straight."

Avid F1 fans may note the absence of some of its original livery. The car is devoid of its most important historical sponsor, Bin Laden. You read that right-it was the father of a global terror who paid for this car to rocket around the world's race tracks. Now owned by Erich Joiner and campaigned in many illustrious rich-guy racing series, the reviled family name was removed, but the Saudia stickers are retained-like building a Messerschmitt model without the swastikas.

The car still gets to stretch its legs on a regular basis. Crew chief Thomas Griffith sees to it the car is kept in tip-top condition and offered his expertise here. Catch up with Joiner and his storied car at www.historicgrandprix.com. -James Tate

0708_sccp_04_z+g_masters+porsche_side_view Photo 18/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing
{{{2007 Porsche 911}}} Turbo (997)
Owner/driver Erich Joiner
Class Supercar
Weight (inc. driver) 3830lb
Estimated wheel-hp 384
Front Rear
Wheels BBS forged BBS forged
aluminum center lock aluminum center lock
Size 19x8.5 19x11
Tires Michelin {{{Pilot}}} Sport Michelin Pilot Sport
PS2 235/35R19 PS2 305/30R19
Tire pressure (psi) NA NA
Suspension stock stock
Spring rate (lb/in) stock stock
Alignment
Toe (mm) stock stock
Camber (deg.) stock stock
Caster (deg.) stock NA
Skidpad lateral g 0.96
Turn 2 lateral g 0.96
Best lap time 1:40.259
0708_sccp_03_z+g_masters+noble_right_front_view Photo 19/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing
2003 Noble M12 {{{GTO}}} 3R
Owner/driver Works/Matt Bell
Class Supercar
Weight (inc. driver) 2304lb
Estimated wheel-hp 380
Front Rear
Wheels stock stock
Size 18x9 +25mm offset 18x9 +25mm offset
Tires Bridgestone Pole Bridgestone Pole
Position S-03 235/40R18 Position S-03 265/35R18
Tire pressure (psi) 34 34
Suspension stock stock
Spring rate (lb/in) stock stock
Alignment
Toe (mm) -1.5 3.0
Camber (deg.) -0.9 -1
Caster (deg.) 10 NA
Skidpad lateral g 0.97
Turn 2 lateral g 1.08
Best lap time 1:36.759
0708_sccp_07_z+g_masters+nissan_skyline_left_front_view Photo 20/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing
1994 {{{Nissan}}} Skyline {{{GT}}}-R (BNR32)
Owner/driver Sean Holloway
Class Street car
Weight (inc. driver) 3425lb
Estimated wheel-hp 375
Front Rear
Wheels Regamaster Regamaster
Size 18x9.5 -18mm offset 18x9.5 -18mm offset
Tires Bridgestone RE-01 Bridgestone RE-01
265/35R18 265/35R18
Tire pressure (psi) 36 34
Suspension A'PEXi N1 Pro A'PEXi N1 Pro
Spring rate (lb/in) 400 380
Alignment
Toe (mm) +1.0 -1.0 (mm)
Camber (deg.) -1.5 -1.0 (deg)
Caster (deg.) 5.0 NA (deg)
Skidpad lateral g 0.95
Turn 2 lateral g 1.09
Best lap time 1:36.522
0708_sccp_08_z+g_masters+lotus_side_view Photo 21/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing
{{{2007 Lotus Exige}}} S
Owner/driver Tom Hughes Jr.
Class Street car
Weight (inc. driver) 2292lb
Estimated wheel-hp 220
Front Rear
Wheels 240R forged five-spoke 240R forged five-spoke
Size 16x7 17x8
Tires Yokohama Advan A005 Yokohama Advan A005
LTS slick 190/580R16 LTS slick 230/625R17
Tire pressure (psi): 20 19
Suspension Ohlin double adjustable, Ohlin double adjustable,
remote reservoir remote reservoir
Spring rate (lb/in) 457 571
Alignment
Toe (mm) 0.0 0.4
Camber (deg.) -0.3 -2.0
Caster (deg.) 3.8 NA
Skidpad lateral g 1.08
Turn 2 lateral g 1.11
Best lap time 1:38.737
0708_sccp_10_z+g_masters+nissan_silvia_right_front_view Photo 22/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing
{{{1991 Nissan 240SX}}} (S13)
Owner/driver Chris Moltz
Class Street car
Weight (inc. driver) 2700lb
Estimated wheel-hp 340
Front Rear
Wheels 5Zigen FN01R-C 5Zigen FN01R-C
Size 17x8 +35mm offset 17x9 +35mm offset
Tires Falken RT-615 Falken RT-615
225/45R17 245/45R17
Tire pressure (psi) 32 30
Suspension A'PEXi N1 Damper Pro A'PEXi N1 Damper Pro
Spring rate (lb/in) 450 335
Alignment
Toe (mm) +1.0 -1.0
Camber (deg.) -2.2 -1.8
Caster (deg.) NA NA
Skidpad lateral g 0.97
Turn 2 lateral g 1.03
Best lap time 1:37.811
0708_sccp_11_z+g_masters+honda_civic_right_front_view Photo 23/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing
{{{2000 Honda Civic}}} Si (EM1)
Owner/driver Phillip Phong
Class Street car
Weight (inc. driver) 2500lb
Estimated wheel-hp {{{200}}}
Front Rear
Wheels Volk TE37 Volk TE37
Size 15x7 +35mm offset 15x7 +35mm offset
Tires Toyo Proxes Toyo Proxes RA-1
RA-1 225/45R15 225/45R15
Tire pressure (psi) 30 30
Suspension TEIN RA TEIN RA
Spring rate (lb/in) {{{780}}} 560
Alignment
Toe (mm) +2.0 0.0
Camber (deg.) -2.0 -2.5
Caster (deg.) NA NA
Skidpad lateral g 0.92
Turn 2 lateral g 0.79
Best lap time 1:50.870
0708_sccp_17_z+g_masters+acura_integra_right_front_view Photo 24/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing
{{{1995 Acura Integra}}} sedan
Owner/driver Hasport Performance Inc./Bernardo Martinez
Class Race car
Weight (inc. driver) 2490lb
Estimated wheel-hp 245
Front Rear
Wheels Enkei RPF1 Enkei RPF1
Size 17x8 +35mm offset 17x8 +35mm offset
Tires Toyo Proxes RA-1 Toyo Proxes RA-1
225/45R17 225/45R17
Tire pressure (psi) 25 28
Suspension Progress Competition Progress Competition
coilovers coilovers
Spring rate (lb/in) 1240 1140
Alignment
Toe (mm) -1.6 0.0
Camber (deg.) -3.0 -4.0
Caster (deg.) Stock NA
Skidpad lateral g 1.03
Turn 2 lateral g 1.25
Best lap time 1:30.249
0708_sccp_18_z+g_masters+mitsubishi_evo_side_view Photo 25/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing
{{{2003 Mitsubishi Lancer}}} Evo VIII
Owner Works/David Bongiovani
Class Race car
Weight (inc. driver) 3285lb
Estimated wheel-hp 454
Front Rear
Wheels AME {{{Tracer}}} AME Tracer
Size 18x9 +28mm offset 18x9 +28mm offset
Tires Toyo R888 245/40R18 Toyo R888 245/40R18
Tire pressure (psi) 30 32
Suspension WORKS/Ohlins Stage IV WORKS/Ohlins Stage IV
Spring rate (lb/in) 728 728
Alignment
Toe (mm) -1.5 -0.5
Camber (deg.) -3.0 -1.3
Caster (deg.) 4.0 NA
Skidpad lateral g 1.04
Turn 2 lateral g 1.21
Best lap time 1:31.546
0708_sccp_19_z+g_masters+honda_s2000_left_front_view Photo 26/41   |   g Masters - Lateral Acceleration Testing
{{{2001 Honda S2000}}}
Owner/driver C-West USA/Andy Hope
Class Race car
Weight (inc. driver) 2200lb
Estimated wheel-hp 276
Front Rear
Wheels Advan RG2 Advan RG2
Size 17x8 +35mm offset 17x9.5 +35mm offset
Tires Yokohama Advan Yokohama Advan
A048 225/40R17 A048 255/40R17
Tire pressure (psi) 30 24
Suspension TEIN Super Racing TEIN Super Racing
Spec Circuit Master N1 Spec Circuit Master N1
Spring rate (lb/in) 890 890
Alignment
Toe (mm) -1.6 0.0
Camber (deg.) -3.0 -4.0
Caster (deg.) Stock NA
Skidpad lateral g 1.15
Turn 2 lateral g 1.31
Best lap time 1:31.060

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